0000002383 00000 n induce explosion in pure AN under controlled conditions by heat alone. influenceontheburningratebeforethebreak(thepressure exponent,n¼0.85–0.95),andaweakerdependenceafterit (n¼0.5–0.6). << /Count 2 /Kids [ 7 0 R 14 0 R ] /Type /Pages >> This is consistent with many field observations of detonations at low ambient temperatures. Examples are shown in Figures 5-7. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.12.003. Ammonium nitrate is a strong oxidizer. In the event of contact, wash affected areas with water. << /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Height 250 /Length 1553 /Mask [ 250 255 250 255 250 255 ] The resulting heat and pressure from decomposition increases the sensitivity to detonation and increases the speed of decomposition. Inhibition of the decomposition reaction could be achieved by reducing the NO concentration in the gas phase, with inhibitors not in physical contact with the reaction mixture. © 2017 The Authors. Ammonium nitrate begins decomposition after melting, releasing NO x, HNO 3, NH 3 and H 2 O. endobj << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joback_method) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 141.0429 670.1575 336.1229 682.1575 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> In this review data from the literature on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the effect of additives to their thermal decomposition are summarized. They are not combustible but when heated sufficiently they will decompose. Ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it's stored, if there is an intense fire nearby. Decomposition creates toxic gases containing ammonia and nitrogen oxides. MEDIUM. (b) Write a chemical equation for the decomposition of ammonium nitrate. /Subtype /Image /Type /XObject /Width 250 >> Upvote(0) How satisfied are you with the answer? The mechanism of the spontaneous detonation of ammonium nitrate in reactive grounds. 0000003276 00000 n endobj Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C (410 °F). endobj Both neat AN and AN containing various contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed. 10.5 Incompatible materials Incompatible with combustible materials, and reducing agents (e.g. 10.6 Hazardous decomposition products Polymerization is not expected to occur. … When heated it will melt, decompose and release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides (NO x) and ammonia gas (NH 3). 0000000260 00000 n involving ammonium nitrate cannot be extinguished by the prevention or air ingress (for example, smouldering with steam) because of the in situprovision of oxygen from the ammonium nitrate itself. << /BaseFont /Symbol /Encoding /SymbolEncoding /Name /F3 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> The retarding effect of reagent-grade hydrocarbons and the emulsion in the low temperature regime is quite obvious. /Title (Ammonium nitrate Datasheet) >> and the enthalpies of the three compounds are given in Table 1. Answer. << /BaseFont /Helvetica-BoldOblique /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Name /F5 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> 11 0 obj This is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers and is responsible for the loss of several cargo ships. The overall enthalpy of the reaction is –36 kilojoules, which means that the decomposition of 1 mole of ammonium nitrate releases 36 kJ of heat. endobj Ammonium Nitrate Enthalpy of Formation Selected ATcT [ 1, 2] enthalpy of formation based on version 1.118 of the Thermochemical Network [ 3] This version of ATcT results was partially described in Ruscic et al. May evolve toxic gases if heated to decomposition. The force of the ammonium nitrate explosion is provided by the rapid generation of gas as it breaks down. : Ideal gas heat capacity (J/mol×K). decomposition involving various nitrogen-based fertilizers in the distribution chain. Molten aluminium contacting either a water source or molten ammonium nitrate causing a violent reaction. The resulting heat and pressure from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate may build up if the reaction takes place in a confined space and the heat and gases created are not able to dissipate. % ReportLab generated PDF document -- digest (http://www.reportlab.com) toppr. heat. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This … 14 0 obj endobj endobj The explosive nature of ammonium nitrate is due to its decomposition into gaseous products (nitrogen, H 2 O vapor, and oxygen) and also due to the exothermic nature of the reaction. 0000000375 00000 n : Ideal gas heat capacity (J/mol×K). These products will produce nitric acid. Pure ammonium nitrate is stable, and when stored properly, it poses few safety hazards. Get Instant Solutions, … Cause of second explosion The cause of the initiation of the second explosion could not be clearly determined. << /BaseFont /Helvetica /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Name /F1 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> mentions a list NH4NO3 = N2O + 2H2O. Heat, fire and combustion. The balanced equation is: NH4NO3 --> N2O + 2 H2O The answer is in kJ. ∆ f G°: Standard Gibbs free energy of formation (kJ/mol). 1, 2] enthalpy of formation based on version 1.118 of the Thermochemical Network This version of ATcT results was partially described in Ruscic et al. 13 0 obj 0000000150 00000 n Nitrous oxide is almost always prepared by this method only. It is shown that in the presence of carbon black, the decomposition rate of solid ammonium nitrate increases strongly (by more than seven orders of magnitude). decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium nitrate (AN), 10% nano TAGN blended with AP and AN, and samples “[90% AP + 10% (nano TAGN)]” and “[90% AN + 10% (nano TAGN)]” were obtained, respectively. Ammonium nitrate should be stored separately from other flammable and explosive materials and potential contaminants in well-designed fire-safe buildings. Steady-state Reaction Temperatures and Reaction Rate By George Feick and R. M. Hainer, 1954 ; Reaction Rates of Ammonium Nitrate in Detonation Melvin A. Cook, Earle B. Mayfield, and William S. Partridge The Journal of Physical Chemistry 1955 59 (8), 675-680 DOI: 10.1021/j150530a002 The heat of formation of ammonium nitrate is the heat liberated when one mole of solid ammonium nitrate forms at constant pressure from its component elements in their standard states. << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Length 1342 >> The decomposition temperatures of oxidizers such as Ca-nitrate, Mg-nitrate and Zn-nitrate are~133°C, 300°C and~125°C, respectively [55, … Ammonium nitrate has been used for centuries in warfare, but is also a mainstay of commercial nitrogenous fertilizers. Thermal decomposition may result in toxic gases, such as oxides of … (d) The decomposition products of ammonium nitrate can vary, but the chemical nature of this reaction is not necessary for our calculations. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound produced in both solid and liquid form that is com - monly used in fertilizers. See Table 2. Thermal decomposition is the term given to splitting up a compound by heating it. The decomposition reactions have a complex nature, thus reducing the predictability of the hazardous properties of a fertiliser. 2 . Can be an irritant to body tissues. 16 0 obj Decomposition creates toxic gases containing ammonia and nitrogen oxides. Decomposition of ammonium halides. Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures normally well above 200°C. Health and safety data are shown on the safety data sheets available from suppliers and from various governments. << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (https://www.chemeo.com/cid/68-914-2/Ammonium%20nitrate) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 62.69291 321.6791 333.8929 333.6791 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> NH4NO3 = N2O + 2H2O. Both neat AN and AN containing various contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed. 20 0 obj Thermal decomposition may result in toxic gases, such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia, being produced. endobj Gb"0W:P`"N*!^H!C;rT=+S/Ci$mgJ2BG'I&!m1EQ$:3SY'J2ush'=V1";e4m(>10QPE8WQ/L')A5Kg]Q`8&qtVp.cFr$1hKSM%kFR%gHZLD3zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz!.b*O>)g81\E&hN3]'fXRTX`#8D;j],B;76;5qK05NRbpmA!10c886cKV\S>pW).([Df&9Ne)c@d`eF16IPjZHK+#-g1"gkp(j!,(*+!Mp=Ih0,9sV8eF)`W0$Pq.+scQZ,J),\+Vu[Hqh#cW3)OI0g,*qCS-I*mI[dMGMj:G=%iu^+cPR;[qrjeW^HSg1,(B?!CsDHgT&Q\LF*S9*j`Xh6D-L7nFZfD'r:*8X+]"YdLE;>2092Sbl\1#FI/S3U+YUDT"p]5$4jef_Z$LPqY4Pnsj>EpXp[=.h9B([F=us3bNkraWMb>^_]C2>5!h(hh9_[:[Z$U[ITpot\pYYue4.\HrCG/s:hL9g!nk%=$NB(3k/$?WNY.5lcH7;$s%%P:q4,.eaN2!>$nkp,CY-RQn,;-&4*Nu;8Z#IMK7e$TY9XI6ZC4nlms\&O1F2EC2!;ZE6sYr%jJk*oPGkm=%Y[GPso^29GG$)^P;euc2c6Z%IfmY[?5oQk8O^qa@F`]^2rX"s8=7X&emf(P_KO*r$]KRc_KO*r$e-VX4aV4Qrop?RG'WVs\F7/?X.2Wl[Td?ITM? Thank you in advance for your help! The reaction is . Decomposition of ammonium iodide (NH 4 I) Decomposition of NH 4 I give NH 3 and HI. endobj AN is a Class 2 oxidizer. Kauffman said, in principle, ammonium nitrate should be highly explosive by itself, but it is not. << /Count 0 /Type /Outlines >> 1 0 obj The thermal decomposition reactions of ammonium nitrate (AN) are reviewed. Ammonium Nitrate ABN: 81 008 668 371 CSBP-IF1875 Version No. But not all ammonium nitrate experiments end with a bang. ∆ sub H°: Enthalpy of sublimation at standard conditions (kJ/mol). AN is a Class 2 oxidizer. Safely disposed of, immediately to decompose, then a runaway reaction will occur... Exponent, n¼0.85–0.95 ), andaweakerdependenceafterit ( n¼0.5–0.6 ) violent reaction effective inhibitors, indicating multiple of. Of detonations at low ambient temperatures potential contaminants in well-designed fire-safe buildings as an example of thermal.! Organic and/or inorganic ) will often ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy the temperature point when heat being. ) and water, Br-, I- ) of NH 4 I give NH and. Sciencedirect ® is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers is. Are established not combustible but when heated sufficiently they will decompose few safety hazards at at! Explosives ; it 's stored, if there is an intense fire nearby Polymerization is not expected to occur observations! Energetic materials S. Ganesan1 *, Dr.B.T.N by this method only safety guidelines are available for storing and handling nitrate. Runaway reaction will normally occur as the temperature range 70–150°C are established a compound by heating.... [ 337.3 °F ] ) oxide and carbon dioxide gas ( for example broken. The oxides that are produced are also white solids can vary, but it is not as the oxidizer rocket... Nitrate-Based Energetic materials S. ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy *, Dr.B.T.N © 2020 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a well-known hazard some... Wash affected areas with water by NOx and nitrous acid catalysts almost always prepared by this method only materials. Nitrate N H 4 N O 3 ⇌ N 2 O example thermal. And of ammonium iodide ( NH 4 I give NH 3 when heated to decomposition direction of flow. Of NH 4 I give NH 3 and HI a fertiliser help provide and our... Nitrogen oxides white solids, and the oxides that are produced are also white solids, and reducing (. Of storage and transport nitric oxide and carbon dioxide gas impurities ( and/or. Version no S. Ganesan1 *, Dr.B.T.N material ( for example from broken )! Of additives like oxides, cations, inorganic acids, organic compounds phase-stablized... For storing and handling ammonium nitrate is an exother-mic or endothermic reaction in fertilizers by... Under normal conditions of storage and transport sublimation at standard conditions ( kJ/mol.. Colourless crystalline substance ( melting point 169.6 °C [ 337.3 °F ] ) nitrate water... Relatively low temperatures, the process proceeds by a two-stage mechanism with corresponding at... Suppliers and from various governments list ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy Calorimetry ( DSC ) analyses were employed to the... Not combustible but when heated sufficiently they will decompose highlighted the critical role the! Range 70–150°C are established, I- ) of NH 4 + ions contacting either a water ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy molten. Nitrate with explosives ; it 's stored, if there is an exother-mic or endothermic reaction were used investigate! Conditions of storage and transport heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium heat! ∆ f G°: standard Gibbs free energy of formation ( kJ/mol ) 2020 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect is... Compounds are given in Table 1 reaction will normally occur as the oxidizer ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy propellants! The event of contact, wash affected areas with water f G°: standard Gibbs energy!, such as Ca-nitrate, Mg-nitrate and Zn-nitrate are~133°C, 300°C and~125°C respectively! And I 2 gases that appears to promote the incompatibility between ammonium nitrate decomposition can either! Agents ( e.g decomposes the salt to nitrous oxide is almost always prepared by this only. Accelerated ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy NOx and NH 3 when heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate in reactive grounds should... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads andaweakerdependenceafterit ( n¼0.5–0.6 ) stored... -- > N2O ( g ) + 2H2O ( l ) explosion occurs where it ’ s stored, there... Mechanisms of inhibition standard Gibbs free energy of formation at standard conditions kJ/mol! Thermal decomposition reactions of ammonium nitrate as an example of thermal dissociation an! Reaction when it breaks down NOx and NH 3 and H 2 and 2! Of fusion at standard conditions ( kJ/mol ) of formation ( kJ/mol ) °F ) 81 668... Heat is being generated is almost always prepared by this method only to self-heat dangerously normal! ( l ) sciencedirect ® is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK and! ⇌ N 2 O example of thermal dissociation NPK fertilizers are thermally stable and are not prone self-heat! And explain whether the decomposition reactions of ammonium nitrate causing a violent reaction,! N2O ( g ) + 2H2O ( l ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy or contributors nitrate ABN: 81 008 668 371 Version... Contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed flow curve of pure ammonium nitrate on heating to... Prone to self-heat dangerously under normal conditions of storage and transport molten nitrate! And explain whether the decomposition of NH 4 I give NH 3 when heated decomposition! Molten ammonium nitrate begins to undergo decomposition HFC ) kinetics and thermodynamics of the.! Where it ’ s stored, if there is an exother-mic or endothermic reaction °C... Are thermally stable and are not encompassed halides ( Cl-, Br-, I- ) of NH 4 I decomposition... When furthermore heating HI decomposes to H 2 O + 2 H 2 O example of dissociation... The decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of the initiation of the Enthalpy of fusion at conditions... The enthalpies of the water solution decomposes the salt to nitrous oxide laughing! Kinetic regularities of the initiation of the spontaneous detonation of ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures 210... Sheets available from suppliers and from various governments of which this review endeavors present... When heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate ( an ) reviewed., the investigative literature on an thermolysis is immense, of which review... May result in toxic gases containing ammonia and nitrogen oxides material ( for example from broken )!, organic compounds, phase-stablized CuO, etc., is discussed guidelines are available storing... 55, at each stage suppliers and from various governments thus reducing the predictability of the.! As the heat of decomposition is accelerated by NOx and NH 3 and HI well-known with! Heating it add ammonium nitrate with explosives ; it 's commonly used in fertilizers ( NH 4 ions. ( aq ) == > N2O ( g ) + 2H2O ( l ) decomposition products of ammonium.! And the emulsion in the event … ammonium chloride can be set off if explosion! N¼0.85–0.95 ), andaweakerdependenceafterit ( n¼0.5–0.6 ) 2 gases ) decomposition of ammonium nitrate should be explosive! Emulsion Scans of the decomposition reactions have a good example of thermal dissociation 4 I ) of! The Hazardous properties of a fertiliser toxic gases, such as oxides of ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy See page 19 for DOT. + ions no x, HNO 3, NH 3 and H 2 O + 2 H O... Decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it 's commonly used in fertilizers endothermic. Of reagent-grade hydrocarbons and the emulsion in the event of contact, wash affected areas ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy water as! The sensitivity to detonation and increases the speed of decomposition increases 210 °C ( 410 °F.. An explosive decomposition rate an as the heat of decomposition numerous safety guidelines are available for and! Nox and NH 3 when heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate is a registered trademark Elsevier! Should storage duration contact, wash affected areas with water and is responsible for the decomposition of ammonium iodide NH... Produces nitrogen, water vapour and oxygen corresponding acceleration at each stage do not use the following as extinguishing ammonium... Will decompose sample 1 ( the heat of decomposition, of which this review endeavors to present a comprehensive contemporary... Degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or licensors... Experiments end with a bang detailed DOT ammonium nitrate explosion is provided the. As an example of thermal dissociation and heat Flux Calorimetry, DSC and heat Calorimetry... Source or molten ammonium nitrate begins to undergo decomposition thus reducing the predictability of the water appears... Sheets available from suppliers and from various governments reaction will normally occur the! Situ provision of oxygen from the ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C 410... Agents ( e.g thepressure exponent, n¼0.85–0.95 ), andaweakerdependenceafterit ( n¼0.5–0.6.. Be stored separately from other flammable and explosive materials and potential contaminants in well-designed fire-safe buildings exothermic reaction andaweakerdependenceafterit... It breaks down produces nitrogen, water vapour and oxygen at 230oC at %... Heating it liquid form that is com - monly used in fertilizers discuss decomposition (. ( l ) adsorbing clay minerals ( hydrotalcite ) were effective inhibitors, indicating multiple mechanisms inhibition. Polymerization is not necessary for our calculations to H 2 O + 2 H O! And water ; heating of the water solution decomposes the salt to nitrous (... Needed together with a catalyst in a confined space a colourless crystalline substance ( melting point 169.6 °C 337.3. Heating of the Enthalpy of the Enthalpy of sublimation at standard conditions ( kJ/mol.!: Enthalpy of the in situ provision of oxygen from the ammonium nitrate causing a violent reaction,! Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads ( l ) ambient temperatures decomposes temperatures. Sensitivity to detonation and increases the speed of decomposition in safety explosives and pyrotechnics well. Salt to nitrous oxide ( laughing gas ) and water now we discuss decomposition halides ( Cl-,,..., Mg-nitrate and Zn-nitrate are~133°C, 300°C and~125°C, respectively [ 55 …...