trailer <<04598E46D65645A2B0D750191D5B0399>]/Prev 340489/XRefStm 1105>> startxref 0 %%EOF 82 0 obj <>stream Porcupine or Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) Order Rodentia. The quills are an ingenious defense because they each sit in a sheath that allows them to release easily when a predator touches them. When a porcupine is approached by a predator, it will turn its back and raise its quills to make them more accessible to a predators face. Please Login or Subscribe to access downloadable content. They have a small head and their body is covered with sharp quills (thick needle-like hairs). The spines and quills cover the posterior two thirds of its back and can get up 50cm and 30cm respectively. Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; Long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed 3. and are about 30” in length, and have very poor vision. Mostly herbivorous, this rodent forages long distances in search of food and lives and breeds in underground burrows in monogamy. Crested porcupines have black and white stripped bristles and hollow quills covering their bodies. The African crested porcupine is the largest porcupine in the world. 0000001105 00000 n A total of 44 pairs of crested porcupines with a litter was observed in three years (Sett 1, N = 10; Sett 2, N = 14; Sett 3, N = 12; Sett 4, N = 8): 59% singletons, 32% twins, 9% triplets.Births occurred throughout the year, with the highest number of litters in February and in October, as well as with the highest number of cubs in mid-winter (). The young leave home for the first time at about two weeks of age, as their quills — soft at birth — begin to harden. Crested porcupines reach adult weight at one to two years and are often sexually mature just before then. Although the crested porcupine has been confirmed as a “generalist” species in terms of food selection, with adaptations to dig underground storage organs, a strong preference for fruits and epigeal parts of plants was detected in our study. 0000003203 00000 n South African porcupines are found from sea level to 2000 m above sea level in most areas with vegetation. In defense, when disturbed, they raise and fan their quills to make themselves look bigger. Adaptation in a population of living things happens as a result of an adaptive trait. Porcupines have special adaptations to help them chew. 0000019499 00000 n The crested porcupine is an Old World porcupine inhabiting Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa named for its impressive and defensive crest of 35 centimeter-long quills. Since the predator is now in pain and the quills are difficult to remove, the porcupine easily escapes the predator. Quills are protective gears – sharp and thick needle like hairs (spines) which are used to defend themselves. 0000001431 00000 n What modern threat do porcupines face in their daily search for food from which their adaptive traits cannot protect them. Wild crested porcupines can be found in parts of Italy such as Sicily. Further, their pointed end has a tiny barb, like a fishhook, that once entered into an animals skin does not pull out easily. The more than 30,000 quills covering the body of a porcupine represent this critter’s most obvious and most effective defense adaptation. After using its specialized teeth to grind the plant matter, undigested fibres are retained in its enlarged functional appendix where they are broken-down by symbiotic gut microorganisms. Name two of the porcupine’s adaptive traits and how each helps it survive:2. 0000028168 00000 n Their body is armed with long pliable spines, flattened bristly hairs and stout sharp quills. They are well-developed and are born with open eyes. These are stiff, hollow hairs made of keratin and approximately three inches in length with a sharp barb at the end. They eat leaves, twigs, buds and even bark. They are rodents with long, sharp front teeth that grow throughout their lives. Quills easily detach from their body and attach to the predatory animals. native; Habitat. The African crested porcupine lives in hilly, rocky habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Italy. The amazingly strong front … Spots and Stripes The crested porcupine takes care of the young for a long time and small family groups consist of the adult pair and young of various ages. The crested porcupine is a mainly nocturnal mammal that shows both moonlight avoidance and some diurnal motor activity, the latter as an extension of its night-time foraging behaviour. o7�Z��b���B��,&z@��< ����� "ʰ � �6 endstream endobj 81 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[9 46]/Length 20/Size 55/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream The African porcupine is the largest rodent in the regions they inhabit. Porcupines are considered exotic pets because they are wild animals and not typically kept as pets. Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed . This is any inheritable trait that increases it’s survival rate so that it can live longer, reproduce longer, and have more offspring (that also have that trait). The “crested” adjective comes from its mane composed of black and white banded hairs that extend from the top of its head to its tail. Human also eat porcupines in some places. I sat super super still not wanting to get quilled. The crest starts from the top of the head and goes down to the shoulders. They can grow in length for up to 21 inches if you include the tail in the measurement, and their appearance is very similar to that of the porcupine, which is another interesting evolutionary adaptation. These quills are modified hairs that form a multi-layered spiny defense. A single porcupine can have more than 30,000 quills, which are actually sharp bristles of fused hair. Citing for websites is different from citing from books, magazines and periodicals. Porcupine Quills Porcupines have soft hair, but on their back, sides, and tail it is usually mixed with sharp quills. Porcupines have special adaptations to help them chew. Porcupine or Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) Order Rodentia. This program, a continuation of the Animal Adaptations Program I (designed for grades 4-5), focuses on bird adaptations. Spots and Stripes The crested porcupine is a terrestrial mammal; they very seldom climb trees, but can swim. Unlike the 'New World' porcupines, this porcupine is a ground-dwelling and burrowing animal. Porcupinesare very well adapted for their lives in the woods. It lives in hilly, rocky habitats in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Italy. Crested porcupine . The annual migration of the monarch butterfly is a behavioral adaptation; while a chameleon, changing its skin color for camouflage, displays a physiological adaptation. The quills of crested porcupines serve as an effective defense against predation. 0000016137 00000 n h�bbbf`b``j � 5� � endstream endobj 56 0 obj <>/Metadata 7 0 R/PageLabels 4 0 R/Pages 6 0 R/StructTreeRoot 9 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 57 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 58 0 obj <> endobj 59 0 obj <> endobj 60 0 obj <> endobj 61 0 obj <> endobj 62 0 obj <> endobj 63 0 obj <> endobj 64 0 obj <>stream 0000010931 00000 n The quills themselves are essentially modified hairs. 0000002205 00000 n "Adaptations of the Porcupine" Exploring Nature Educational Resource ©2005-2020. Name two other living things that have an adaptive trait like the porcupine and how their adaptations help repel predators. Porcupines are nocturnal rodents. 0000000856 00000 n Porcupines. Another large porcupine is the Cape porcupine which can measure up to an impressive 81 centimeters from their head to the base of their inconspicuous tail. They eat leaves, twigs, buds and even bark. Title: Subtitle: Section of Page if appropriate. 0000019119 00000 n They consume a variety of natural and agricultural plant material, including roots, bulbs, fruits, grains, drupe and tubers, along with insects and small vertebrates. Many pet dogs have fallen for this trick and gotten too close with their sensitive noses. Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; Long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed 3. The crested porcupine is an Old World porcupine inhabiting Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa named for its impressive and defensive crest of 35 centimeter-long quills. 0000004031 00000 n The most characteristic feature about porcupines is obviously that they are quill bearing rodents. 0000003287 00000 n It can grow up to 90 centimeters long and weigh up to 30 kilograms. Sponsoring/Publishing Agency, If Given. Adaptation in the Porcupine Adaptation in a population of living things happens as a result of an adaptive trait. %PDF-1.4 %���� Their brown quills are barbed and snag the predator’s flesh. Hystrix africaeaustralis is found only in sub-saharan Africa, excluding the coastal desert of the southwest. Their unique features have generated great interests from some humans but a majority of us wouldn't be looking to keep porcupines as pets. The African porcupine is the largest rodent in the regions they inhabit. Family Hystricidae. North American porcupines have much shorter quills than African crested porcupines. The porcupine has adaptive traits that help it survive in its forest habitat. They have a small head and their body is covered with sharp quills (thick needle-like hairs). H�\��j�0����\/JM�L��Z��������8�E�~RT:���g�_����s�IF�ah�0ɶs6�8�B��Ή$��k��i�6}�E���. They are nocturnal and monogamous. 0000028829 00000 n Porcupines are very well adapted for their lives in the woods. I sat super super still not wanting to get quilled. The style of citing shown here is from the MLA Style Citations (Modern Language Association). 1. Location: Small Animal Building 5. Unlike the 'New World' porcupines, this porcupine is a ground-dwelling and burrowing animal. This is any inheritable trait that increases it’s survival rate so that it can live longer, reproduce longer, and have more offspring (that also have that trait). As the predator’s muscles work, they further embed the painful quills. 0000001817 00000 n Its body is covered with coarse quills 1 to 13 inches long and of varying thicknesses. These are African Crested Porcupines one of the largest rodents in the world. The African crested porcupine's teeth and digestive system are well adapted for its tough herbivorous diet. The high hind legs of a cheetah are a physical adaptation. Their brown quills are barbed and snag the predator’s flesh. ©2005-2020 Sheri Amsel. The amazingly strong front feet allow the animal excavate substantial burrows. 55 0 obj <> endobj xref 55 28 0000000016 00000 n 3. Between one and four young are born in the grass-lined burrow. To view these resources with no ads, please Login or Subscribe (and help support our site). Life Science and Biology, Resources for Naturalists, Activities, Experiments, Online Games, Visual Aids, Testing, Performance Tasks, Questions, Webquests. Their quill lengths vary on different parts of the body, anywhere from 1” to 12” on their back. New quills will grow in to replace lost ones. Porcupines. • The word porcupine means ‘quill pig.’ • They are the largest rodent in Africa and the largest of the porcupines. 0000003092 00000 n h�b```b``�������� ̀ �,`ȱ��e��m�0KXa�{`fF�� �" (f`ab�nf`�a4a`;���|�ч��At��\�t���\d���X(v2�:7� Adaptive traits can improve animals find food, make a … Porcupines are lumbering, rotund rodents with needle-like spikes, called quills, covering their back, sides, and tail. Porcupine Quills Porcupines have soft hair, but on their back, sides, and tail it is usually mixed with sharp quills. All rights reserved. 0000001271 00000 n This rodent has rather long quills of up to 16 inches. They don’t hibernate and feed all winter, usually at night (nocturnal), but can be seen during the day. 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Of 10-19 kg can stand up into a crest on occasion modern Language Association ), anywhere from 1 to. Porcupinesare very well adapted for their minerals and also to sharpen their powerful.! 30Cm respectively needle-like hairs ) easily when a predator touches them 2000 m sea! Last Updated excluding the coastal desert of the head and their body is covered coarse... Page if appropriate. about 30 ” in length with a mass of 10-19 kg too close their. A majority of us would n't be looking to keep porcupines as.! Are found from sea level in most areas with vegetation quills to create an of... They shel­ter in caves, rock crevices, aard­vark holes, or bur­rows they dig them­selves ( Grz­imek 1990.... Very well adapted for their minerals and also to sharpen their powerful incisors to sharpen powerful!