[19] This city would soon play a vital role in the following centuries. In the 1960s, the first Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze in eastern China at that time. [95] The smog dissipated 12 December. Vaughan, C. Edwin. Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese. [21] The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Nanjing Massacre, conventional Nanking Massacre, also called Rape of Nanjing, (December 1937–January 1938), mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. [30] Based on historical documents, the city had 280,000 registered households. The Capital Theater well known in the past is now a museum in theater/film. The Nanjing Brocade (南京云锦) is their exquisite product as the cloth for the royal garments such as dragon robes. Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. After some time, he eventually thwarted its officials by buying a piece of property near the South Gate and Confucius Temple; to build the city's first Methodist Church, western hospital (Blackstone Methodist Hospital) and Boys' School. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers (behind Beijing and Shanghai), according to the Nature Index,[15] especially strong in the chemical sciences. Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. Its dishes tend to be light and fresh, suitable for all. [115] The station was opened for public service in 2011.[116]. Die Schlacht von Nanking war eine Schlacht des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Kriegs. Beset by factional conflicts, his regime could not offer effective resistance to Qing forces, when the Qing army, led by the Manchu prince Dodo approached Jiangnan the next spring. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor. The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, Nanjing has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. Other museums include the City Museum of Nanjing in the Chaotian Palace, the Oriental Metropolitan Museum,[g] the China Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall, the Taiping Kingdom History Museum, Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum,[h] Nanjing Yunjin Museum, Nanjing City Wall Cultural Museum, Nanjing Customs Museum in Ganxi House,[i] Nanjing Astronomical History Museum, Nanjing Paleontological Museum, Nanjing Geological Museum, Nanjing Riverstones Museum, and other museums and memorials such Zheng He Memorial[j] Jinling Four Modern Calligraphers Memorial.[k]. [61][62] The Manchus soon ordered all male residents of the city to shave their heads in the Manchu queue way. Sun's body was brought and placed in a grand mausoleum to cement Chiang's legitimacy. Nanjing was later the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. The Ming dynasty drawing Prosperous Nanjing (南都繁会图卷; Nándū Fánhuì Tújuǎn) depicts a vivid market scene bustling with people and full of various sorts of shops. Jiangsu Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China like the historical Master Ho-Kan;[133] many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery, also have their own special exhibitions. Nanjing also has professional opera troupes for the Yang, Yue (shaoxing), Xi and Jing (Chinese opera varieties) as well as Suzhou pingtan, spoken theater and puppet theater. Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing is commonly viewed as a "city of culture" and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China. The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. Nanjing ist ein politisch kulturelles Zentrum Chinas mit einer langen Geschichte. Many of the city's local favorite dishes are based on ducks, including Nanjing salted duck, duck blood and vermicelli soup, and duck oil pancake. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R&D institutes in the city. [120] The airport currently has 85 routes to national and international destinations, which include Japan,[121] Korea, Thailand,[122][123] Malaysia, Singapore, United States[124] and Germany. 2001 - Second Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge constructed. He constructed a 48 km (30 mi) long city wall around Yingtian, as well as a new Ming Palace complex, and government halls. [141] Jiangsu Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China top level league, CBA. During this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia. [46] The Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402. The Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games featured all 28 sports on the Olympic program and were held from 16 to 28 August. The New York Times bestselling account of one of history's most brutal -- and forgotten -- massacres, when the Japanese army destroyed China's capital city on the eve of World War II In December 1937, one of the most horrific atrocities in the long annals of wartime barbarity occurred. Compared to Wutaishan Sports Center, which the major stadium's capacity is 18,500,[144] Nanjing Olympic Sports Center has a more advanced stadium which is big enough to seat 60,000 spectators. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. Since becoming a southern capital, the city has been called Nanking (Nanjing, The areas covered by such geographical names as Jiangnan, Dongnan and Xiajiang are not precisely defined. Expressways {G+XXxx (National Express, 国家高速), S+XX (省级高速)}: National Highway {G1xx (which starts from Beijing), G2xx (north-south), G3xx (west-east)}: The city also boasts an efficient public transport network, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems. Along with Chongqing and Wuhan, Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnaces" along the Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime. A railway Ninggao Intercity Line has been built to link the airport with Nanjing South Railway Station. Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east–west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north–south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030. Chiang was born in the neighboring province of Zhejiang and the general area had strong popular support for him. The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since 2011, provides more than 370 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas. Die Nanking-Massaker-Gedächtnishalle in China enthält unter seinen vielen Ausstellungsstücken auch eines über den „Wettstreit“. The sex ratio of the city population was 107.31 males to 100 females. The killings occurred in 1937, two years before the Second World War officially began in the eyes of the European and American powers. This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 00:33. [103][104], As in most of eastern China, the official ethnic makeup of Nanjing is predominantly Han nationality (98.56 percent), with 50 other official ethnic groups. The Nanjing Massacre or the Rape of Nanjing (alternately written as the Nanking Massacre or the Rape of Nanking) was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Imperial Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War . Nanking in 1927 was a treaty port located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River, a large waterway that separates northern and southern China. [114] Construction of Nanjing South Station began on 10 January 2008. There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. It was home of the admiral Zheng He, who went to sail the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and it was visited by foreign dignitaries, such as a king from Borneo (渤泥; Bóní), who died during his visit to China in 1408. Zhang, Chunhou. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum. [22] In English, the spelling Nanking has been traditional until Pinyin, developed in the 1950s and internationally adopted in the 1980s, standardized the spelling as "Nanjing". Nach der Schlacht verübten die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker von Nanking zahlreiche Kriegsverbrechen an der chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung. Nanjing is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, with several more high-speed rail lines under construction. [d] Nanjing is sometimes known as Jinling or Ginling (金陵, "Gold Hill") of the eponymous Ginling College; the old name has been used since the Warring States period in the Zhou dynasty. Koxinga's forces were unable to maintain a complete encirclement, which enabled the city to obtain supplies and even reinforcements—though cavalry attacks by the city's forces were successful even before reinforcements arrived. As of 2010[update], it operated six public ports and three industrial ports. Many traditional festivals and customs were observed in the old times, which included climbing the City Wall on January 16, bathing in Qing Xi on March 3, hill hiking on September 9 and others (the dates are in Chinese lunar calendar). According to Nanjing.GOV.cn, "There is a long history of growing radish in Nanjing especially the southern suburb. It has many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. History textbooks were reworded to describe the Sino-Japanese War as "advancing in and out of China" instead of "aggression" which was deemed to be a more pejorative term. In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the "Nanjing Regime" or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei was established in Nanjing as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing. The city has also attracted foreign investment, multinational firms such as Siemens, Ericsson, Volkswagen, Iveco, A.O. Zheng He governed the city with three eunuchs for internal matters and two military noblemen for external matters, awaiting the Hongxi Emperor's return along with the military establishment from the north. Ein Artikel in der Japan Times meint, dass dessen Gegenwart es Revisionisten erlaube, eine „Saat des Zweifels zu säen“ über die Genauigkeit der gesamten Sammlung. Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. [128] Nanjing is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing as the leading port in the region. [83][84][85] On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,090 mm (43 in). [91] From 5 to 6 December, Nanjing issued a red alert for air pollution and closed down all kindergarten through middle schools. It was renamed Shengzhou (昇州) in the Tang dynasty and resuscitated during the late Tang. In the near future, Such Yangtze Crossings will be added as follow :Jianning West Rd. 1395. [45] It is among the longest surviving city walls in China. 10 November: City besieged by Manchu forces. The Nanjing massacre, also known as Nanking massacre or rape of Nanking, is one of the darkest events of the History of China. Die Massaker begannen am 13. History of Nanking Massacre. The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. [38][39][40], The Southern Song were eventually exterminated by the Mongols; during their rule as the Yuan dynasty, the city's status as a hub of the textile industry was further consolidated. Nanjing South Railway Station, which is one of the 5 hub stations on Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, has officially been claimed as the largest railway station in Asia and the second largest in the world in terms of GFA (Gross Floor Area). It must made more public despite Japan's attempt to cover up the facts of what truly occurred. [130] CSC Jinling has a large shipyard.[131]. [48] The emperor died on 29 May 1425 before this could have taken place,[48][49] so Beijing remained the de facto capital and Nanjing remained the secondary capital. Going in the downstream direction, the Yangtze crossings in Nanjing are: Dashengguan Bridge, Line 10 Metro Tunnel, Third Bridge, Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel (南京长江隧道), First Bridge, Second Bridge and Fourth Bridge,Nanjing Yangtze Tunnel (南京扬子江隧道). Because it was designated as the national capital, many structures were built around that time. For other uses, see, Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China, Location of Nanjing City jurisdiction in Jiangsu. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education program focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. Tunnel, Heyan Rd. Since large numbers of immigrants flooded into the area, reclamation was quite common in its remote parts, which promoted its agricultural development. In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD, as well as in and around major residential areas throughout the city. After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of laid-off workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless. [27] It was renamed Moling (秣陵) during the reign of the First Emperor of Qin. [64], Despite capturing many counties in his initial attack due to surprise and having the initiative, Koxinga announced the final battle in Nanjing in 1659 ahead of time giving plenty of time for the Qing to prepare because he wanted a decisive, single grand showdown like his father succsfully did against the Dutch at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay, throwing away the surprise and initiative which led to its failure. It was a decade of extraordinary growth with an enormous amount of construction. Nanjing is ranked the 88th QS Best Student City in 2019. Some notable high schools in Nanjing are: Jinling High School, Nanjing Foreign Language School, High School Affiliated to Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing No.1 High School, Nanjing Zhonghua High School, Caulfield Grammar School (Nanjing Campus). It is believed that Nanjing was the largest city in the world from 1358 to 1425 with a population of 487,000 in 1400. [99], At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8.005 million. Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009.[109]. Mao Zedong as Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspectives. [23] In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture. Nanjing has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. During this boom, Nanjing reputedly became one of the most modern cities in China. Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. Many of them were refugees, fleeing from the Japanese armies which had invaded China. When it was the capital of China, for instance under the ROC, Jing (京; 'Capital') was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. [55], Over two centuries after the removal of the capital to Beijing, Nanjing was destined to become the capital of a Ming emperor one more time. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. [37] It was renamed Jiangning (江寧) in the Northern Song and renamed Jiankang in the Southern Song. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou. Its duck and goose dishes are well known among Chinese for centuries. During the Sino-Japanese War, Nanking, the capital of China, falls to Japanese forces, and the Chinese government flees to Hankow, further inland along the Yangtze River. Under the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Nanjing area was known as Jiangning and served as the seat of government for the Viceroy of Liangjiang. [31] Assuming an average Nanjing household consisted of about 5.1 people, the city had more than 1.4 million residents. Planetary History [] Early History []. [78] In 1946, after the Surrender of Japan, the KMT relocated its central government back to Nanjing. The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University.) Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed. As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. Nanjing University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. In 2013, Nanjing airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight. The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, the city has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. Both the Qing viceroy and the Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace. The sparse population led to land as royal rewards were granted for rules’ people. 571BC or 472BC In 571BC, nearly 2,600 years ago, a small village called Tangyi was situated in today’s Liuhe District, a northern suburb of Nanjing. The following decade is known as the Nanking decade. [82] However, the time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom blooming season in which the meiyu (rainy season of East Asia; literally "plum rain") occurs, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. Coordinates (Jiangsu People's Government): unknown (Yecheng, 495 BCE. A lot of government buildings, residential houses, and modern public infrastructures were built. Nanjing Library, founded in 1907, houses more than 10 million volumes of printed materials and is the third largest library in China, after the National Library in Beijing and Shanghai Library. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Blossom Hill, the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. The city was razed after the Sui took it over. [66] Koxinga's Ming loyalists fought against a majority Han Chinese Bannermen Qing army when attacking Nanjing. It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. The local cuisine in Nanjing is called Jinling cuisine (金陵菜) or Jingsu cuisine (京苏菜); it is part of Jiangsu province's cuisine. [4] Official statistics in 2011 estimated the city's population to be 8.11 million. Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections. The phoenix birds once frolicked on Phoenix Terrace. [14] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. The YOG aims to spread the Olympic spirit and encourage sports participation. Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport NKG, serves both national and international flights. In 1927, the Nationalist government proposed a comprehensive planning proposal, the Capital Plan (首都計劃), to reconstruct the war-torn city of Nanjing into a modern capital. The Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organizing Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. Tunnel, Fifth Nanjing Yangtze Bridge. 5The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. Because the foreign interests in China were largely American and European, squadrons of foreign naval vessels were stationed along the Yangtze to protect their citizens doing business at the treaty ports. Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens. THE AWAKENING OF CHINA: 1793–1949. ..." – from "Three giants tighten their grip", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCrespigny2004 (, 《至大金陵新志》:"金城在城东二十五里,吴筑,今上元县金陵乡地名金城戍即其地。" 《至正金陵新志》:"上元縣金陵鄉,舊名金城戍。晉太元八年,謝安勞師于金城,即此。或稱琅邪城。咸康初,桓溫為琅邪內史,鎮金城。", 金陵在春秋時本吳地,未有城邑。惟石頭城東有冶城。傳雲,夫差冶鑄於此。即今朝天宮地。. It also lies at the center of a very rich country on both sides of the lower Yangtze. It was well populated and had a large craft industry.[42]. Sparked strong protests from other Asian … When was Nanjing founded the former imperial... Kilometers per hundred square kilometers ( 181.15 mi/100 sq mi ) before.... Kilometers per hundred square kilometers ( 181.15 mi/100 sq mi ), and. Yuecheng and Jinling Yi, both from the Japanese armies which had invaded.. 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