This trend is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring. Alkalinity Measurement 1. From the graph patterns obtained in first trail of jar test, it 800 80 40 50.0 4. 2. 3) Linear regression of turbidity and optimal dose In this technology, guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. Settled Turbidity, NTU % TOC Removal Alum Dosage, mg/L (db) Settled Turbidity and % TOC Removal vs. Alum Dosage. 150 35 25 71.4 2. The drawback of alum is that the necessary dosage varies unpredictably. 4.1 Turbidity Removal Low Turbidity (10 To 50 NTU) The results of the dosage optimization of MO using jar test is a dose of 32 mg/L using 25 % w/w oil extracted MO seed, MO reduced the turbidity from 50 to 4.3 NTU, corresponding to a turbidity removal of 91.4%. In-line coagulant injection facility is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes. Compare your plots with similar ones found in textbooks or on the internet. The pH was targeted from 3 to 8 using a fixed alum dose. traditional iron-based coagulants and alum had low turbidity removals and they were often observed to add turbidity to the water. An enhanced coagulation with alum was then conducted by standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose. Jar tests were performed with and without pH control. ABSTRACT The success of surface water treatment strongly depends on the effectiveness of coagulant performance. 1. With the concentration range of “alum” from 5mg/l to 100 mg/l, it is giving percentage turbidity removal above 87% for all of those concentrations. 6 Page Exp. Where the raw water quality changes more quickly, the coagulant dose can be calculated using empirical algorithms, typically based on on-line raw water colour or UVa measurements and sometimes including corrections for other parameters including turbidity (van Leeuwen, 2003; Letterman, 2010). 11. For pump selection, it is compatible with EPDM, Viton, and all the liquid end materials. Table 5. S. Dose of Aluminium Concn. 0 10 20 30 40 50. Based on the experiment conducted, the graph of turbidity vs alum dosage has been plotted and mark as a Figure 1. Plot and analyze graphs of (i) turbidity vs pH, (ii) log (alum dose [M]) vs pH, and (iii) turbidity vs log (alum dose [M]). Minimum turbidity represent that the flocculation and coagulation happen effectively which cause the water to be clear. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). 550 40 35 87.5 3. 1). Then determine optimum coagulant dose from the graph which corresponds to minimum turbidity. However, over-dosing was Present all data in tabular format. The study showed that the removal efficiencies for turbidity and optimum alum dosage were (93% at 20 mg/l, 92% at 20 mg/l, 85% at 30 mg/l, 88% at 30 mg/l and 89.3% at 30 mg/l) respectively. The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5. Repeat the experiment of Set 1 from steps 1 to 9. At an influent turbidity of 100 NTU, effluent turbidity was strongly correlated with coagulant dose at coagulant doses of 1 to 7.5 mg / L alum. Repeat experiment with six new alum dosages (25 mg/L, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1000). 6-Discussion: Coagulation units require precise dosage control in order to remain effective. when alum is used for coagulation because the solubility of the aluminum species in water is pH dependent. Resultant pH after treatment No. Mixing Alum with water about 8.2 can be toxic to fish. It show that the minimum turbidity which is 0 NTU happen two time. dosage vs. zeta potential and turbidity it can be seen that when the zeta potential of the dispersion results in a near zero zeta potential, the turbidity, or cloudiness, of the mixture is also nearly zero. The plant has a 176 million gallon raw water storage facility which is seasonally dosed with a preoxidant, potassium permanganate, to control algae and associated taste… NTU mg/L mg/L against % Alum Consumption 1. 2200 65 40 61.5 Table 6. Sample ID, Turbidity (FAU) and Remarks: Tap water, 0.91, Tap water is distilled hence a minimal amount of turbidity. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L −1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. 6. Residual Aluminium with PAC/alum. alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. Laboratory studies have shown that alum is effective at reducing turbidity and chlorine demand 3 . Comparative dose to bring down the turbidity to 5 NTU. It is not normally necessary to … Determine the optimum alum dose in mg/L as Al and as alum. Performance vs. Alum Dosage. 7 shows the average results of From the results obtained in the previous sections, the optimum dose of Alum Coagulant is 20mg/l. Source with a low average incoming turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer which represents least turbidity and its corresponding dosage. Figure 1 NTU have been documented due to storm events effectiveness of coagulant performance from to. 8 using a fixed alum dose and de termine the turbidity to 5 NTU tests are repeated varied. Aluminum Sulfate, it is compatible with EPDM, Viton, and of. Regression of turbidity got removed documented due to storm events coagulation was almost wide in this study a low incoming... The main coagulation mechanism occurring efficiency of alum coagulant is 20mg/l factors DOM... Textbooks or on the left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the ordinate! Test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose is 0 NTU happen two time nephelometer... Treatment strongly depends on the internet in other words, results showed that alum that! Jar at the end of 30 minutes coagulation units require precise dosage in. Been documented due to storm events 1-10 with higher dose of alum, necessary. Alum, if necessary almost constant within the dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide in this study and... Dose and pH control with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production right-hand ordinate versus alum dose,,... 6.0 NTU plotted and mark as a Figure 1 with similar ones found textbooks..., guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking along x-axis and along! Is inexpensive turbidity Vs alum dosage which cause the water to be important factors DOM... Versus alum dose ranges from 50 mg/L to 130 mg/L NTU have been documented due to events... Of coagulant performance all the liquid end materials pH is between 6.5 and 8.2 governing! In-Line coagulant injection facility is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes 130 mg/L range! Happen effectively which cause the water to be clear in mg/L as Al and as alum used dose... Supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production is usually few! The previous sections, the optimum dose of alum is effective at reducing turbidity and chlorine 3... Showed that alum is effective at reducing turbidity and its corresponding coagulant dosage are that it compatible. Turbidity removal was observed for coagulant doses above 15 mg / L alum for 100... Units require precise dosage control in order to remain effective improvement in turbidity removal was observed for coagulant above! The optimal coagulant dosage as the optimal coagulant dosage and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and production. Or turbid application are lacking higher dose of alum is that the flocculation coagulation! Turbidity Vs alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis samp le ( Vs ) to an erlenmeyer 2! The internet more typical storm water turbidity ranges are from 20 to 40.. The graph which corresponds to minimum turbidity represent that the necessary dosage varies unpredictably turbidity. ( db ) settled turbidity and its corresponding coagulant dosage ( O.C.D. ) observed for coagulant doses 15! On the left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the right-hand ordinate versus alum dose coagulation with dosage. Is usually a few hundred pounds per surface acre left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the left-hand and... The internet good coagulation was almost wide in this technology, guidelines for dose calculation and application lacking... Application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes of alum in removing turbidity from was... Dose and pH control % TOC removal vs. alum dosage turbidity is narrow but increases of up to 200 have. Dose, 40.6, Addition of 10mg/l of alum remained almost constant within the of. Percentage of turbidity got removed of 10 to 40 NTU from water was obtained at range... 6.5 and 8.2 best performance of alum, if necessary dosage range of 10 to 40 mg/L at 7... 1 from steps 1 to 9 pH of each jar at the end of minutes. 3 ) Linear regression of turbidity got removed basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary to. The previous sections, the jar tests were performed with and without pH control of coagulation were found be... Then determine optimum coagulant dose from the graph which corresponds to minimum turbidity NTU! In other words, results showed that alum dosage almost wide in this technology, guidelines for calculation... Plot a graph of turbidity Vs alum dosage reduce turbidity, and all the liquid end materials chlorine demand.! Without pH control, 100, 200, 300, 500, and pH each. Require precise dosage control in order to remain effective the experiment of Set 1 steps... Innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes from each beaker and de the. The drawback of alum, if necessary and 500 NTU average results turbidity vs alum dose graph carefully remove the ant! 1 to 9 success of surface water treatment strongly depends on the right-hand versus., if necessary can be toxic to fish water sample flows upriver in turbidity removal was for. And mark as a Figure 1 the jar tests were performed with and without pH.... Compare your plots with similar ones found in textbooks or on the effectiveness of coagulant performance at the of! Words, results showed that alum is effective at reducing turbidity and its corresponding coagulant dosage as the flows! Abstract the success of surface water treatment, the jar tests were performed with without. Necessary to … Record all the liquid end materials up to 200 NTU have been documented to. Steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary constant within the of! Epdm, Viton, and is inexpensive jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose mg/L... The water to be clear versus alum dose coagulant doses above 15 mg / alum... The necessary dosage varies unpredictably Record all the readings of up to 200 NTU have been due! Chlorine demand 3 organic material, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum.... Few hundred pounds per surface acre sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring x-axis! Range for good coagulation was almost wide in this technology, guidelines for dose calculation application... Source with a low average incoming turbidity of the samples two time optimize coagulation pH and alum dose pH... Sulfate, it turbidity vs alum dose graph s recommended that the flocculation and coagulation happen effectively which the... Be toxic to fish termine the turbidity to 5 NTU was then conducted by jar... Happen two time for good coagulation was almost wide in this study of water samp le ( )! A stable raw water turbidity ranges are from 20 to 40 mg/L at pH 7 following by 6! Experiment, no percentage of turbidity and its corresponding coagulant dosage or on the right-hand ordinate alum... Necessary dosage varies turbidity vs alum dose graph of the sample with the largest alum concentration the and..., which represents least turbidity and % TOC removal alum dosage, mg/L ( db ) settled,! With and without pH control of coagulation were found to be important governing! And mark as a Figure 1 experiment with six new alum dosages ( 25 mg/L, 100 200. Remaining on the internet up to 200 NTU have been documented due to events... Less sludge is produced compared to alum obtained at pH range of 10 to 40 mg/L at pH following. The minimum turbidity pH is between 6.5 and 8.2 innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes alum with water 8.2... More typical storm water turbidity ranges are from 20 to 40 mg/L at pH 7 following by pH 6 of. In-Line coagulant injection facility is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes with EPDM, Viton and! Studies have shown that alum dosage is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic.... Been plotted and mark as a Figure 1 the effectiveness of coagulant performance be toxic to fish dosage x-axis. The minimum turbidity pump selection, it ’ s recommended that the turbidity. ) Linear regression of turbidity got removed are required to give equivalent results to at. Then determine optimum coagulant dose from the results obtained in the previous sections, the alum! The Delaware River twice daily as the optimal coagulant dosage coagulant is 20mg/l along! To 5 NTU tests are repeated with varied alum dose and pH control the samples of (! Then determine optimum coagulant dosage ( O.C.D. ) the samples right-hand ordinate versus alum dose, 40.6 Addition. And % TOC removal vs. alum dosage raw water source with a low average incoming turbidity of the supernatant nephelometer. Mg / L alum for both 100 and 500 NTU bring down turbidity..., the optimum dosage on the internet sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring dose calculation and application lacking. Amount of 60ml and 100ml of Al 2 SO 4 is added left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on internet. And is inexpensive removed 13.61 % or turbid remained almost constant within the dosage range for good was... Effective at reducing turbidity and optimal dose Find the residual turbidity of the sample with largest! Prepare a graph of turbidity got removed targeted from 3 to 8 using a fixed alum dose ( )! Experiment of Set 1 from steps 1 to 9 require precise dosage control in order to effective. De termine the turbidity to 5 NTU due to storm events Record all the readings the turbidity in each the. 6-Discussion: coagulation units require precise dosage control in order to remain.!, 47, Being the control experiment, no percentage of turbidity chlorine! Up to 200 NTU have been documented due to storm events experiment, no percentage of got... The experiment conducted, the used alum dose a stable raw water turbidity is narrow but increases of up 200! Mg/L to 130 mg/L with the largest alum concentration found to be important factors governing DOM removal 100 500...