[177] The tutor was immensely proud of his students. [6] The main narrative source for the period is Cassius Dio, a Greek senator from Bithynian Nicaea who wrote a history of Rome from its founding to 229 in eighty books. [157], Immediately after their senate confirmation, the emperors proceeded to the Castra Praetoria, the camp of the Praetorian Guard. [58] Marcus reportedly greeted the news that Hadrian had become his adoptive grandfather with sadness, instead of joy. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. Writing to Fronto, he declared that he would not speak about his holiday. [160] Upon his accession he also devalued the Roman currency. Her inheritance included large brickworks on the outskirts of Rome – a profitable enterprise in an era when the city was experiencing a construction boom – and the Horti Domitia Calvillae (or Lucillae), a villa on the Caelian hill of Rome. [237] He returned to Rome immediately thereafter, and sent out special instructions to his proconsuls not to give the group any official reception. There was corruption among the officers: Victorinus had to ask for the resignation of a legionary legate who was taking bribes. Marcus Aurelius was chosen by Emporer Hadrian to be his eventual successor. Famous Marcus Aurelius quotes on Life, Death and Love: You might be having an idea that Marcus Aurelius, who was none other than the Roman emperor, was born around 121 AD. [20][21] This branch of the Aurelii based in Roman Spain, the Annii Veri, rose to prominence in Rome in the late 1st century AD. His Stoic philosophical writings are known as the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, which were written in Greek.He was succeeded by his son … Pulleyblank, Leslie and Gardiner, pp. [15] He may have been known as Marcus Annius Catilius Severus,[16] at birth or some point in his youth,[12][14] or Marcus Catilius Severus Annius Verus. He has symbolized for many generations in the West the Golden Age of the Roman Empire. In 164, a new capital, Kaine Polis ('New City'), replaced Artaxata. Instead, Marcus was in the care of 'nurses',[36] and was raised after his father's death by his grandfather Marcus Annius Verus (II), who had always retained the legal authority of patria potestas over his son and grandson. Marcus Aurelius died on March 17, 180. As it was, Marcus was set apart from his fellow citizens. Marcus Aurelius, through decades of training in Stoicism, in other words, had taught himself to face death with the steady calm of someone who … [92], Fronto was highly esteemed: in the self-consciously antiquarian world of Latin letters,[93] he was thought of as second only to Cicero, perhaps even an alternative to him. His name at birth was supposedly Marcus Annius Verus,[11] but some sources assign this name to him upon his father's death and unofficial adoption by his grandfather, upon his coming of age,[12][13][14] or at the time of his marriage. IV' in imperial titulature. He had rested, and would rest often, but 'this devotion to duty! Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 164. Aurelius even hoped to extend the empire’s borders through this conflict, but Aurelius didn't live long enough to see this vision to completion. During the pregnancy she dreamed of giving birth to two serpents, one fiercer than the other. Antoninus seems to have given him no military experience; the biographer writes that Marcus spent the whole of Antoninus's twenty-three-year reign at his emperor's side and not in the provinces, where most previous emperors had spent their early careers. [69] Marcus would later caution himself against taking the name too seriously: 'See that you do not turn into a Caesar; do not be dipped into the purple dye – for that can happen'. He was the tenth of fourteen children and the only son to survive - his twin brother Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antonius died at the age of four. [188] Fronto would again remind his pupil of the tension between his role and his philosophic pretensions: 'Suppose, Caesar, that you can attain to the wisdom of Cleanthes and Zeno, yet, against your will, not the philosopher's woolen cape'. Galen, who was in Rome when the plague spread to the city in 166,[282] mentioned that 'fever, diarrhoea, and inflammation of the pharynx, along with dry or pustular eruptions of the skin after nine days' were among the symptoms. [301] The early Christian apologist, Justin Martyr, includes within his First Apology (written between 140 and 150 A.D.) a letter from Marcus Aurelius to the Roman senate (prior to his reign) describing a battlefield incident in which Marcus believed Christian prayer had saved his army from thirst when "water poured from heaven," after which, "immediately we recognized the presence of God." Verus died in 169 so Aurelius pushed on alone, attempting to drive away the Germans. Pulleyblank, Edwin G.; Leslie, D. D.; Gardiner, K. H. J. [90] He thought the Stoics' desire for apatheia was foolish: they would live a 'sluggish, enervated life', he said. His downfall came during the Franco-Prussian War, when his efforts to defeat Otto Von Bismarck ended in his capture. [159] The ceremony was perhaps not entirely necessary, given that Marcus's accession had been peaceful and unopposed, but it was good insurance against later military troubles. The consulate was a twin magistracy, and earlier emperors had often had a subordinate lieutenant with many imperial offices (under Antoninus, the lieutenant had been Marcus). Friends Who Liked This Quote. Marcus Aurelius Quotes It is not death that a man should fear, but he should fear never beginning to live. The reign of Marcus Aurelius was marked by military conflict. Barnes, 'Legislation against the Christians'. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', pp. [256] On 12 October of that year, Marcus proclaimed two of his sons, Annius and Commodus, as his heirs. In the night he vomited; he had a fever the next day. [8] Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources. [150] Thus, although the senate planned to confirm Marcus alone, he refused to take office unless Lucius received equal powers. P. Julius Geminius Marcianus, an African senator commanding X Gemina at Vindobona (Vienna), left for Cappadocia with detachments from the Danubian legions. Now heir to the throne, Marcus studied Greek and Latin under tutors such as Herodes Atticus and Marcus Cornelius Fronto. [293], Marcus acquired the reputation of a philosopher king within his lifetime, and the title would remain after his death; both Dio and the biographer call him 'the philosopher'. In the second century, the emperors treated Christianity as a local problem to be dealt with by their subordinates. [59], At some time in 138, Hadrian requested in the senate that Marcus be exempt from the law barring him from becoming quaestor before his twenty-fourth birthday. There had been reverses in Rome's past, Fronto writes,[219] but in the end, Romans had always prevailed over their enemies: 'Always and everywhere [Mars] has changed our troubles into successes and our terrors into triumphs'. [198], There was threat of war on other frontiers as well – in Britain, and in Raetia and Upper Germany, where the Chatti of the Taunus mountains had recently crossed over the limes. Born: 26 April 121. He was born on April 26, A.D. 121, according to DIR Marcus Aurelius, or perhaps April 6 or 21.He died on March 17, 180. 'Caesar to Fronto. [109], By the age of twenty-five (between April 146 and April 147), Marcus had grown disaffected with his studies in jurisprudence, and showed some signs of general malaise. [88], Atticus was controversial: an enormously rich Athenian (probably the richest man in the eastern half of the empire), he was quick to anger and resented by his fellow Athenians for his patronizing manner. [71] Marcus would struggle to reconcile the life of the court with his philosophic yearnings. Marcus Aurelius, Meditations. Marcus Aurelius. Accession of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus (161), Trade with Han China and outbreak of plague. [146] His death closed out the longest reign since Augustus, surpassing Tiberius by a couple of months. And so Marcus Aurelius called a council of his soldiers and made a rather extraordinary announcement. It had conveyed the drama of the disaster, and the senate had been awed: 'Not more suddenly or violently was the city stirred by the earthquake than the minds of your hearers by your speech'. AKA Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. Marcus Brutus is best known for being a part of the assassination of Julius Caesar. “ — Marcus Aurelius, book Meditations. The Dacias were still divided in three, governed by a praetorian senator and two procurators. Marcus had chosen a reliable man rather than a talented one. Barnes, Timothy D. 'Some Persons in the Historia Augusta', Birley, Anthony R. 'Hadrian to the Antonines'. Husband of Rupilia Faustina: Levick (2014), p. 163. An assassination ended his reign on the Ides of March. [133], Lucius started his political career as a quaestor in 153. Here’s a collection of quotes detailing what he had to say on the subject. They were called Titus Aurelius Antoninus and Tiberius Aelius Aurelius. After raising the necessary funds and troops, Aurelius and Verus went off to fight the invaders. He was stronger and healthier than Marcus, the argument went, and thus more suited to military activity. In the East, the Roman Empire fought successfully with a revitalized Parthian Empire and the rebel Kingdom of Armenia. 68–69. Only with reluctance did he move from his mother's house on the Caelian to Hadrian's private home. Marcus's grandfather owned a palace beside the Lateran, where he would spend much of his childhood. “About death: Whether it is a dispersion, or a resolution into atoms, or annihilation, it is either extinction or change.” —Marcus Aurelius Part of what makes death so scary is that we know nothing about it. 'I have duties hanging over me that can hardly be begged off', he wrote back. [123] The first mention of Domitia in Marcus's letters reveals her as a sickly infant. [112], Fronto had warned Marcus against the study of philosophy early on: 'It is better never to have touched the teaching of philosophy...than to have tasted it superficially, with the edge of the lips, as the saying is'. [172] Marcus and Lucius proved popular with the people of Rome, who strongly approved of their civiliter ('lacking pomp') behaviour. Historians have criticized the succession to Commodus, citing Commodus's erratic behaviour and lack of political and military acumen. Farquharson dates his death to 130 when Marcus was nine. If the gods are willing we seem to have a hope of recovery. Aurelius also continued his philosophical studies and developed an interest in law. Marcus Aurelius — ‘Death smiles at us all; all we can do is smile back.’ ... ― Marcus Aurelius tags: death, dying. [187], Fronto's letters continued through Marcus's early reign. [35] His mother Lucilla did not remarry[33] and, following prevailing aristocratic customs, probably did not spend much time with her son. Like youth and old age. He believed Marcus was 'beginning to feel the wish to be eloquent once more, in spite of having for a time lost interest in eloquence'. What comes after we die? Faustina accompanied Aurelius on campaigns 170-175 CE and went with him to Syria, Egypt, and Greece. [274] In one speech, Marcus himself reminded the Senate that the imperial palace where he lived was not truly his possession but theirs. [167][note 11] Aside from the fact that the twins shared Caligula's birthday, the omens were favorable, and the astrologers drew positive horoscopes for the children. Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, was emperor of France from 1852 to 1870. His campaigns against Germans and Sarmatians were also commemorated by a column and a temple built in Rome. It 'affected his health adversely', his biographer writes, to have devoted so much effort to his studies. [23][24][note 1], Marcus's mother, Domitia Lucilla Minor (also known as Domitia Calvilla), was the daughter of the Roman patrician P. Calvisius Tullus and inherited a great fortune (described at length in one of Pliny's letters) from her parents and grandparents. Marcus Aurelius, through decades of training in Stoicism, in other words, had taught himself to face death with the steady calm of someone who … Indeed, at his accession, Marcus transferred part of his mother's estate to his nephew, Ummius Quadratus. [135] Lucius had no other titles, except that of 'son of Augustus'. When Marcus was an old man, exhausted not only by age but also by labors and cares, he suffered a serious illness while visiting the Pannonians. [174] Lucius Volusius Maecianus, Marcus's former tutor, had been prefectural governor of Egypt at Marcus's accession. If there were anything harmful on the other side of death, [Gods] would have made sure that the ability to avoid it was within you. Birthplace: Rome, Italy Location of death: Vindobona Cause of death: unspec. [225] Critics declaimed Lucius's luxurious lifestyle,[226] saying that he had taken to gambling, would 'dice the whole night through',[227] and enjoyed the company of actors. 71–79. Professional jurists called him 'an emperor most skilled in the law'[271] and 'a most prudent and conscientiously just emperor'. His father, Marcus Annius Verus III was a politician and a nobleman. [5] Marcus's own Meditations offer a window on his inner life, but are largely undateable and make few specific references to worldly affairs. [288], Marcus was succeeded by his son Commodus, whom he had named Caesar in 166 and with whom he had jointly ruled since 177. He had kept his teachers on good terms, following them devotedly. The formalities of the position would follow. The Column of Marcus Aurelius in Piazza Colonna. Despite the shared adoption of Marcus and Lucius, the political realities upon the death of Antoninus Pius in AD 161 were quite different. [99] Marcus spent time with Fronto's wife and daughter, both named Cratia, and they enjoyed light conversation. Aurelius held his territory, but was weakened as a ruler after the death of his brother Verus. [127] He quoted from the Iliad what he called the 'briefest and most familiar saying...enough to dispel sorrow and fear':[128]. In addition to being a unique Roman leader, Marcus Aurelius was also an accomplished historian and Stoic [294][295], Christians such as Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, and Eusebius also gave him the title. It was replaced with a statue of Saint Paul in 1589 by Pope Sixtus V.[321] The column of Marcus and the column of Trajan are often compared by scholars given how they are both Doric in style, had a pedestal at the base, had sculpted friezes depicting their respective military victories, and a statue on top.[322]. And Lucius, raising his hand to heaven, said, ' O Zeus, the king of the Romans in his old age takes up his tablets and goes to school.' [250] A second force, under Avidius Cassius and the III Gallica, moved down the Euphrates, and fought a major battle at Dura. Another daughter was born on 7 March 150, Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla. Ackermann, Schroeder, Terry, Lo Upshur and Whitters, p. 39. [214] Marcus could not take Fronto's advice. [68] He was made consul for 140 with Antoninus as his colleague, and was appointed as a seviri, one of the knights' six commanders, at the order's annual parade on 15 July 139. There are many factors that Marcus must take into account when he is pondering about death. [272] He showed marked interest in three areas of the law: the manumission of slaves, the guardianship of orphans and minors, and the choice of city councillors (decuriones). His serious and hard-working nature was even noticed by Emperor Hadrian. [79] Marcus had complained of an illness in an earlier letter: 'As far as my strength is concerned, I am beginning to get it back; and there is no trace of the pain in my chest. If not for his adoption, he probably would have become triumvir monetalis, a highly regarded post involving token administration of the state mint; after that, he could have served as tribune with a legion, becoming the legion's nominal second-in-command. [203] Three full legions were also sent east: I Minervia from Bonn in Upper Germany,[204] II Adiutrix from Aquincum,[205] and V Macedonica from Troesmis. Marcus Aurelius was a Roman emperor who ruled from 161 CE until his death in 180 CE. Around the age of 17, Marcus Aurelius became the son of Antoninus. [253] Lucius took the title Parthicus Maximus, and he and Marcus were hailed as imperatores again, earning the title 'imp. The Parthian army dispersed in the Tigris. '[212] He encouraged Marcus to rest, calling on the example of his predecessors (Antoninus had enjoyed exercise in the palaestra, fishing, and comedy),[213] going so far as to write up a fable about the gods' division of the day between morning and evening – Marcus had apparently been spending most of his evenings on judicial matters instead of at leisure. The First Apology of Justin Martyr, Chapter LXVIII. the wind scatters some on the face of the ground; Like growth and maturity. [284] In the view of historian Rafe de Crespigny, the plagues afflicting the Eastern Han empire of China during the reigns of Emperor Huan of Han (r. 146–168) and Emperor Ling of Han (r. 168–189), which struck in 151, 161, 171, 173, 179, 182, and 185, were perhaps connected to the plague in Rome. [122], On 30 November 147, Faustina gave birth to a girl named Domitia Faustina. Dio asserts that the Annii were near-kin of Hadrian, and that it was to these familial ties that they owed their rise to power. [126] Marcus steadied himself: 'One man prays: 'How I may not lose my little child', but you must pray: 'How I may not be afraid to lose him'. This forced Aurelius to travel to the East to regain control. Marcus and his cousin-wife Faustina had at least 13 children during their 30-year marriage,[123][303] including two sets of twins. Fronto felt that, because of Marcus's prominence and public duties, lessons were more important now than they had ever been before. Based on his Stoic beliefs, the work is filled with his notes on life. [242] A new king was installed: a Roman senator of consular rank and Arsacid descent, Gaius Julius Sohaemus. - Marcus Aurelius quotes from BrainyQuote.com "Death is a release from the impressions of the senses, and from desires that make us their puppets, and from the vagaries of the mind, and from the hard service of the flesh." Marcus Aurelius quotes on life, love, death will motivate you in life. Wife of M. Annius Libo: Levick (2014), p. 163. His father was Marcus Annius Verus (III). Philosophy of Death According to Marcus Aurelius Essay. [161], A possible contact with Han China occurred in 166 when a Roman traveller visited the Han court, claiming to be an ambassador representing a certain Andun (Chinese: 安 敦), ruler of Daqin, who can be identified either with Marcus or his predecessor Antoninus. As the grandson of Arulenus Rusticus, one of the martyrs to the tyranny of Domitian (r. 81–96), he was heir to the tradition of 'Stoic Opposition' to the 'bad emperors' of the 1st century;[119] the true successor of Seneca (as opposed to Fronto, the false one). Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (/ɔːˈriːliəs/ ə-REE-lee-əs,[1] Latin: [ˈmaːrkʊs̠ au̯ˈreːlijʊs̠ an̪t̪oːˈniːnʊs̠]; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. The next day, 1 December, Antoninus gave Marcus the tribunician power and the imperium – authority over the armies and provinces of the emperor. He was later made governor of Syria. When he criticized the insincerity of conventional language, Fronto took to defend it. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. To see what your friends thought of this quote, please sign up! [27][28] Marcus himself was born and raised in the Horti and referred to the Caelian hill as 'My Caelian'.[29][30][31]. For this reason, Marcus decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but even banished those who had previously been brought there. Reign (161–180 AD). – Marcus Aurelius Quotes “The act of dying is also necessary like other works of life.” – Marcus Aurelius Quotes “Death is something that never discriminates against mankind.” – Marcus Aurelius Quotes “We cannot avoid death, but we can definitely … In contrast to their behaviour during Antoninus's campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. His son Commodus became emperor and soon ended the northern military efforts. Roman emperor from 161 to 180, philosopher, The dissolute Syrian army spent more time in, Marcus Aurelius receiving the submission of the vanquished, with raised. After a long struggle, Marcus managed to push back the invaders. [53] After a brief stationing on the Danube frontier, Aelius returned to Rome to make an address to the Senate on the first day of 138. Marcus informed them of his plan to capture Cassius, but not kill him. Download the whole book free of charge. His master, he writes to Fronto, was an unpleasant blowhard, and had made 'a hit at' him: 'It is easy to sit yawning next to a judge, he says, but to be a judge is noble work'. [74], As quaestor, Marcus would have had little real administrative work to do. Lucius, who had just come to Rome, asked the Emperor, whom he met on his way, where he was going to and on what errand, and Marcus answered, ' it is good even for an old man to learn; I am now on my way to Sextus the philosopher to learn what I do not yet know.' ', p. 69. [108] The outcome of the trial is unknown. [145] He then turned over, as if going to sleep, and died. Some Germanic tribes who settled in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! [233] Lucilla was accompanied by her mother Faustina and Lucius's uncle (his father's half-brother) M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus,[234] who was made comes Augusti, 'companion of the emperors'. Fronto urged him in a letter to have plenty of sleep 'so that you may come into the Senate with a good colour and read your speech with a strong voice'. Marcus Aurelius' book Meditations gives a clear and concise view of what death is and how man should cope with it. A first invasion of the Chatti in the province of Germania Superior was repulsed in 162. Marcus and Lucius gave the crisis their personal attention. [78], On 1 January 145, Marcus was made consul a second time. He decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 83.5% to 79% – the silver weight dropping from 2.68 g (0.095 oz) to 2.57 g (0.091 oz). Excuses were sought, or invented: the official version had it that the Seleucids broke faith first. As Antoninus aged, Marcus would take on more administrative duties, more still when he became the praetorian prefect (an office that was as much secretarial as military) when Marcus Gavius Maximus died in 156 or 157. Marcus should have been angry. Between 170-180 CE, Marcus Aurelius campaigned against the Germanic tribes and toured the eastern provinces of his empire. As Emperor of Rome from 161-180, Marcus Aurelius kept the empire safe from the Parthians and Germans but is best known for his intellectual pursuits. I love you and you are not here' in their correspondence. The original title of this work, if it had one, is unknown. Along with his burgeoning career, Aurelius seemed to have a contented personal life. [62] His remains were buried quietly at Puteoli. While some sources indicate that Antoninus selected him as his only successor, Aurelius insisted that his adopted brother served as his co-ruler. [18], Marcus's paternal family was of Roman Italo-Hispanic origins. [103] Marcus asks that Fronto's pain be inflicted on himself, 'of my own accord with every kind of discomfort'. [42] One of his teachers, Diognetus, a painting master, proved particularly influential; he seems to have introduced Marcus Aurelius to the philosophic way of life. As the years passed, he received more responsibilities and official powers, evolving into a strong source of support and counsel for Antoninus. He was born into a wealthy and politically prominent family. The peace could not hold long; Lower Pannonia did not even have a legion. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. [149], Although Marcus showed no personal affection for Hadrian (significantly, he does not thank him in the first book of his Meditations), he presumably believed it his duty to enact the man's succession plans. The child's name is unknown. [189], The early days of Marcus's reign were the happiest of Fronto's life: Marcus was beloved by the people of Rome, an excellent emperor, a fond pupil, and perhaps most importantly, as eloquent as could be wished. [84], After taking the toga virilis in 136, Marcus probably began his training in oratory. He worked alongside his adopted father while learning the ways of government and public affairs. '[216], Fronto sent Marcus a selection of reading material,[218] and, to settle his unease over the course of the Parthian war, a long and considered letter, full of historical references. [37] Marcus thanks his grandfather for teaching him 'good character and avoidance of bad temper'. [104], Fronto never became Marcus's full-time teacher and continued his career as an advocate. [61], After a series of suicide attempts, all thwarted by Antoninus, Hadrian left for Baiae, a seaside resort on the Campanian coast. Below are some of the best Marcus Aurelius quotes to inspire you to create your own happiness and live your best life. Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. [244], In 163, the Parthians intervened in Osroene, a Roman client in upper Mesopotamia centred on Edessa, and installed their own king on its throne. It would mean the end of the felicitas temporum ('happy times') that the coinage of 161 had proclaimed. Is there an afterlife, or is everything simply over? What I was hoping for then, I have now. He had a logical mind and his notes were representative of Stoic philosophy and spirituality. Lucius Dasumius Tullius Tuscus, a distant relative of Hadrian, was in Upper Pannonia, succeeding the experienced Marcus Nonius Macrinus. Then another: the girl alone. His first consulship was in 161, so he was probably in his early thirties,[208] and as a patrician, he lacked military experience. [247] Soon after the conquest of the north bank of the Euphrates, other Roman forces moved on Osroene from Armenia, taking Anthemusia, a town southwest of Edessa. [236] He only accompanied the group as far as Brundisium, where they boarded a ship for the east. Verus oversaw the war effort while Aurelius stayed in Rome. Marcus was born during the reign of Hadrian to the emperor's nephew, the praetor Marcus Annius Verus, and the heiress Domitia Calvilla. [281], The Antonine Plague started in Mesopotamia in 165 or 166 at the end of Lucius's campaign against the Parthians. [147], After Antoninus died in 161, Marcus was effectively sole ruler of the Empire. [156] As the biographer wrote, 'Verus obeyed Marcus...as a lieutenant obeys a proconsul or a governor obeys the emperor'. Birley believes there is some truth in these considerations. This new impetus westwards was probably due to attacks from tribes further east. There was then a crop of growing corn; there is now a ripe, gathered harvest. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161. [110] Marcus had grown tired of his exercises, of taking positions in imaginary debates. [48] Alexander's influence – an emphasis on matter over style and careful wording, with the occasional Homeric quotation – has been detected in Marcus's Meditations. He was consul in 154,[134] and was consul again with Marcus in 161. Known for his philosophical interests, Aurelius was one of the most respected emperors in Roman history. Champlin, 'Chronology of Fronto', p. 138. Marcus Aurelius, however, is … Meditations by Marcus Aurelius, Martin Hammond (Translator), Albert Wittstock (Translator), Diskin … Marcus married Antoninus's daughter Faustina in 145. Edessa was re-occupied, and Mannus, the king deposed by the Parthians, was re-installed. Unlike the peaceful and prosperous rule of Antoninus, the joint reign of the two brothers was marked by war and disease. He was immediately deified and his ashes were returned to Rome, where they rested in Hadrian's mausoleum (modern Castel Sant'Angelo) until the Visigoth sack of the city in 410. Much of their success in this conflict has been attributed to the generals working under Verus, especially Avidius Cassius. [165]) Faustina was three months pregnant at her husband's accession. [114] Marcus kept in close touch with Fronto, but would ignore Fronto's scruples. The adoptive family of Marcus was of Roman Italo-Gallic origins: the gens Aurelia, into which Marcus was adopted at the age of 17, was a Sabine gens; Antoninus Pius, his adoptive father, came from the Aurelii Fulvi, a branch of the Aurelii based in Roman Gaul. [77] He was required to make a speech to the assembled senators as well, making oratorical training essential for the job. Antonio Vivaldi was a 17th and 18th century composer who’s become one of the most renowned figures in European classical music. Marcus Garvey was a proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, inspiring the Nation of Islam and the Rastafarian movement. The object of life is not to be on the side of the majority, but to escape finding oneself in the ranks of …