When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. In the event of a breach of security leading to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to, personal data, the Business shall promptly assess the risk to people’s rights and freedoms and if appropriate report this breach to the ICO (more information on the ICO website). First, it is used in a list when three or more words, phrases or even complete sentences are joined by the word and or or; we might call this construction an X, Y and Z list: The Three Musketeers were Athos, Porthos and Aramis. Generally, British English does not make use of this extra comma, but most publications on the US do. ) isn't "in" the list - it precedes the list. Which of these sentences would be improved by the addition of the serial comma? The commas between these items are signals. c. This policy shall be reviewed at least annually. This page explains when to use commas in lists, has lots of examples, and includes an interactive exercise. [. That girl is obsessed with commas, semicolons, and em dashes. In the second case, that comma is omitted. Patti and her friends are debating about the serial comma—the comma that comes before the final conjunction in a list. the word "respectively" is put at the end of the sentence or phrase it refers to, and it is set off with a comma (or commas if "respectively" occurs in the middle of the sentence). It is true that commas are sometimes optional, depending on sentence meaning and the writer’s taste, and many writers choose not to put a comma before the “and” in a series (also known as the “serial comma”) involving a parallel list of words. The comma makes things clearer, and a recent lawsuit proves that. The serial comma comes before the final conjunction in a list. Commas Before and in a Series In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. They do not do “packing for shipment or distribution”. In Frost’s version (without the serial comma), “dark and deep” are an appositive for “lovely.” The speaker thinks that the woods are lovely precisely. Truck drivers sued, saying that they deserve overtime because their job is distribution. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. 2. The Listing Comma. When writing a list, you should put a comma between each item, except for the last item where you use ‘and’. These … Sunday’s reception will feature a variety of elegant finger sandwiches: cream cheese and pineapple, marinated bell peppers and goat cheese, asparagus and butter and sliced cucumber and mint mayonnaise. Or does it contain three more items, “the use of debit and credit cards,” “mutual funds,” and “CDs”? Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. Leaving the comma out before “and” in a list of three or more items seems to join the last two items, at least to me. When you read the list aloud, the commas emerge as breaths: Charlie has to buy flashlight batteries [breath] butter cookies [breath] ice cream [breath] and cake. Right: Ella wrote a statement for the media and then screamed at Larry for an hour. b. S hould you use a comma before and/or after “etc.”? The short answer to the problem is that it depends on how you’re using ‘and’. comma before “and” looks like a new thing in Grammar world. Quite possibly (especially if Huey were a jerk), Huey would get half the money, and Dewey and Louie would have to split the other half. 6. b. Read more about commas in lists. Always place a comma before or when it begins an independent clause, but if it begins a dependent clause, don’t. GDPR means the General Data Protection Regulation. Writers frequently wonder whether a comma should go before the conjunction and in a list of three or more items. But even style guides that generally discourage its use do agree that at times it is necessary for clarity and/or readability. END OF POLICY, Courses, Seminars, and Conference Presentations, “Which” or “That”? Or does it contain two more items, “the use of debit and credit cards” and “mutual funds and CDs”? Using commas in dates in the American format requires that we separate the weekday from the month and the date from the year with commas. Breach In the final round of the cooking competition, the contestants had to prepare three different quiches: broccoli, ham and cheese and spinach. Data Protection Policy Use commas to set off a word or phrase that renames a noun or pronoun that came before it. Comma (,) Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. 1. Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more. Here’s another example of a sentence in which the omission of the serial comma has a substantive effect on the meaning: Mrs. Jones left her money to her children: Sally and Fred Smith, Margaret and John Williams, Betty and Harold Spivey and their children. Despite the fact that not all style books agree on this issue, we recommend using a comma after the next-to-last item in a series—the serial comma, as it is called (or the Harvard or Oxford comma). Almost everyone has an opinion on serial comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma. If we were to write, for example, “The table was covered with gifts, food and flowers,” the meaning might appear to be quite clear without the serial comma. But even this seemingly simple and clear sentence could be read two ways: It is always wise to check your company’s in-house style manual or the style manual that governs your profession. Last updated 1/29/19 Before joining words. a. But the court is right: if you want to clearly identify the items in your list, consider your commas carefully. – FumbleFingers Apr 28 at 16:59 We tend to think we are being clear because we know what we mean to say. Appositives act as synonyms for a … Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of … As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. The Comma. The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four distinct uses. We usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. Correct: He is great, and I admire him. With three list items, use a comma between the list items and before the 'and' (or whatever conjunction) if it's your local convention. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence.
Each item had to be manually inserted into a line of type. 1. We'll show you how to use conjunctions, clauses, relative pronouns, and the proper way to use a comma after "and" with our comma cheat sheet. Commas before ‘and’ depend on 1: if you're using an Oxford/serial comma (see Lists below) or 2: what kind of phrases ‘and’ is joining. In The Lawyer’s Book of Rules for Effective Legal Writing, Thomas R. Haggard says, “The serial comma is essential in legal writing because it promotes clarity” (17). The same rules apply for titles. To ensure that personal data is kept for no longer than necessary, the Business shall put in place an archiving policy for each area in which personal data is processed and review this process annually. First, it is used in a list when three or more words, phrases or even complete sentences are joined by the word and or or; we might call this construction an X, Y and Z list : b. Look at the following example. The English language uses a comma to separate three or more items in a series. Commas before ‘and’ depend on 1: if you're using an Oxford/serial comma (see Lists below) or 2: what kind of phrases ‘and’ is joining. According to The Little, Brown Handbook (Fowler and … The Business shall take reasonable steps to ensure personal data is accurate. Archiving / removal A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. The Responsible Person shall take responsibility for the Business’s ongoing compliance with this policy. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. Get It Write Online Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. d. Appropriate back-up and disaster recovery solutions shall be in place. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after … A comma is used before an "and" only if it is used to separate two independent clauses, or if it is used as an Oxford comma to separate the last item in a list of three or more things. Numbers aren’t separated from other descriptions or from the word(s) that they describe. The Business is committed to processing data in accordance with its responsibilities under the GDPR. Some of the items represent style choices instead of rules, such as how to use a comma in a list, but when you're making a simple list, you have to make choices At one time the Brits did use it, but without wanting to get … I think it’s crucial. In the first case, the “serial comma” or “Oxford comma” is used after the penultimate item in the list. To bring many items, “ which ” or “ Oxford comma that it on... 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