In East China, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai, and the second largest is Nanjing. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million. In 1999, 77,394 residents belonged to officially defined minorities, among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui, contributing 83.76 percent to the minority population. During this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. [114] Construction of Nanjing South Station began on 10 January 2008. Children's Hospital outpatient services increased by 33 percent; general incidence of bronchitis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased. Koxinga's forces were defeated and "slipped back" (Wakeman's phrase) to the ships which had brought them.[67]. Tunnel, Heyan Rd. It must made more public despite Japan's attempt to cover up the facts of what truly occurred. „Metropole der zehn Dynastien“ (十朝都會  /  十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì). In the mere six weeks during which the Japanese perpetrated the Nanking Massacre starting on Dec. 13, 1937, an estimated 20,000-80,000 Chinese women were brutally raped and sexually assaulted by the invading soldiers. As a major Chinese city, Nanjing is home to many professional sports teams. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. [87], A dense wave of smog began in the central and east parts of China on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 km (750 mi),[89] including Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai and Zhejiang. [134] The museum is notable for enormous collections of Ming and Qing imperial porcelain, which is among the largest in the world. Since then four more bridges and two tunnels have been built. Nanjing is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, with several more high-speed rail lines under construction. All three are significant players economically and politically, Beijing and Shanghai particularly. Im Dezember 1937 eroberten japanische Kräfte die damalige Hauptstadt der Republik China Nanking, nachdem sich die chinesischen Verteidiger chaotisch aus der Stadt zurückgezogen hatten. The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city. In the 1950s after PRC was established by CPC, the government invested heavily in the city to build a series of state-owned heavy industries, as part of the national plan of rapid industrialization, converting it into a heavy industry production center of east China. In recent years, Nanjing has been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as well as city construction. [111] It serves as rail junction for the Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xi'an (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei–Nanjing Railway. The restaurant specializing in Jinling cuisine is Ma Xiang Xing (马祥兴菜馆). In 1927, the Kuomintang (KMT; Nationalist Party) under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek again established Nanjing as the capital of the Republic of China, and this became internationally recognized once KMT forces took Beijing in 1928. [106] Several dynasties established their imperial textiles bureaus in Nanjing. The city first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty. Nanjing has many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index. Nanking: A Historical Background. However another version held by most historians, is … Along with Chongqing and Wuhan, Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnaces" along the Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime. Dajiaochang Airport is still used as a military air base. Nanjing) während des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Krieges. [53], A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it. The city is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure,[9] enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province. Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge built. 5The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. Tunnel, Xianxin Rd. Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the best theaters for Kunqu, China's oldest stage art. With the redolent atmosphere of Ian Rankin and the spine-chilling characters of Thomas Harris, Mo Hayder's The Devil of Nanking, takes the reader on an electrifying literary ride from the palatial apartments of yakuza kingpins to deep inside the secret history of one of the twentieth century's most brutal events: the Nanking Massacre. The New York Times bestselling account of one of history's most brutal -- and forgotten -- massacres, when the Japanese army destroyed China's capital city on the eve of World War II In December 1937, one of the most horrific atrocities in the long annals of wartime barbarity occurred. Planetary History [] Early History []. From the 1960s to 1980s there were five pillar industries, namely, electronics, automobiles, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. The massacre occurred over a period of six weeks starting on December 13, 1937, the day that the … Through readings of historical account by actors and the testimony of survivors, the events of the Nanjing Massacre are recounted. Jiangsu Volleyball men and women teams are also traditionally considered as at top level in China volleyball league. The Tomb of the King of Boni, with a spirit way and a tortoise stele, was discovered in Yuhuatai District (south of the walled city) in 1958, and has been restored. The city began to be called the 'southern capital' – Nanjing (南京), in comparison to the capital in the north. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia as part of it. Nanking was founded during the reign of the Terran Alliance, and like many colony worlds found itself independent after the issue of the Demarcation Declaration.Joining with a number of other nearby planets in the 2240s in an act of balkanization common to those rippling across the Inner Sphere in the wake of the withdrawal of Terran oversight … [47] In 1421, the Yongle Emperor relocated the capital to Beijing. | Yoshida, Takashi | ISBN: 9780195180961 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R&D institutes in the city. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Several place names in Nanjing remains witnessed them, such as Wangjinshi (网巾市, the market sells wangjin), Guyilang (估衣廊, the corridor for garments bargain), Youfangqiao (油坊桥, the bridge near an oil mill). Other events include Nanjing Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival, Jiangxin Zhou Fruit Festival and Linggu Temple Sweet Osmanthus Festival. The massacre is also known as the Rape of Nanking. In ancient times the area was known as, A small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral, 100 National Key Universities are universities of. The city, also spelled Nanjing or Nan-ching, was founded in the 8 th century BC. The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, Nanjing has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. Die Massaker begannen am 13. [59] Days after Yangzhou fell to the Manchus in late May 1645, the Hongguang Emperor fled Nanjing, and the imperial Ming Palace was looted by local residents. [78] In 1946, after the Surrender of Japan, the KMT relocated its central government back to Nanjing. Among them, iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu province. [112] On November 12, 1999, the station was burnt in a serious fire. A few days before the fall of the city, the National Government of China was relocated to the southwestern city Chungking (Chongqing) and resumed Chinese resistance. Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing is commonly viewed as a "city of culture" and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China. Koxinga's attack on Qing held Nanjing which would interrupt the supply route of the Grand Canal leading to possible starvation in Beijing caused such fear that the Manchus (Tartares) considered returning to Manchuria (Tartary) and abandoning China according to a 1671 account by a French missionary. Coordinates (Jiangsu People's Government): unknown (Yecheng, 495 BCE. (南京為中國古都,在北京之前,而其位置乃在一美善之地區。其地有高山,有深水,有平原,此三種天工,鐘毓一處,在世界中之大都市誠難覓如此佳境也。而又恰居長江下游兩岸最豐富區域之中心...)[86], To be more exact, surrounded by the Yangtze River and mountains, the urban area of the city enjoys its scenic natural environment. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion's catastrophe. [citation needed] The area was successively part of Kuaiji, Zhang and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, and part of Yangzhou region which was established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty (106 BC). The Nanjing massacre, also known as Nanking massacre or rape of Nanking, is one of the darkest events of the History of China. He constructed a 48 km (30 mi) long city wall around Yingtian, as well as a new Ming Palace complex, and government halls. The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University.) The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Blossom Hill, the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers (behind Beijing and Shanghai), according to the Nature Index,[15] especially strong in the chemical sciences. Here is a short list: Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Buildings, National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery, Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple Mountain, Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs, Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders, Zifeng Tower ranks among the tallest buildings in the world, opened for commercial operations in 2010.[145]. Jinling City, 333 BCE), Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000), Former Central Committee of KMT Buildings (, Nanking Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road (, Former Republic of China Military Academy Buildings (, Former Bank of China Nanking Branch Building (, Former Bank of Communications Nanking Branch Building (, Former Central Bank of ROC Nanking Branch Building (, Former Macklin Hospital Buildings (Gulou Hospital) (, Aviation Martyrs of WWII Memorial Cemetery (, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 19:47. Sun Yat-sen once summarized and lauded the feature of Nanjing in his book The International Development of China (建國方略): Nanking was the old capital of China before Peking, and is situated in a fine locality which comprises high mountains, deep water and a vast level plain—a rare site to be found in any part of the world. Nanking in 1927 was a treaty port located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River, a large waterway that separates northern and southern China. Nanjing hosted the 10th National Games of PRC in 2005 and hosted the 2nd summer Youth Olympic Games in 2014.[142][143]. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China. The Yangtze River flows downstream from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, through Anhui and Jiangsu to the East China Sea. Edited and Translated by Martin Kieffer. In 317, remnants of the Jin court, as well as nobles and wealthy families, fled from the north to the south and reestablished the Jin court in Nanjing, which was then called Jiankang (建康), replacing Luoyang. Smith, and Sharp have established their lines, and a number of multinationals such as Ford, IBM, Lucent, Samsung and SAP established research center there. Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station and Nanjing South Railway Station, while other stations like Nanjing West Railway Station, Zhonghuamen Railway Station and Xianlin Railway Station serve minor roles. The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China in January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president and Nanjing was selected as its new capital. Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. [68] It was the site of a Qing Army garrison. New York: Putnam, 1967. p. 109, Fu Jing-hui, An Introduction of Chinese and Foreign History of War, 2003, p.109–111, Document sent by former Japanese foreign minister. The rebellion destroyed most of the former Ming imperial buildings in the city, including the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing. Nov 22, 2019 - Explore Sun Li-jen's board "Nanking Massacre" on Pinterest. Vaughan, C. Edwin. Jiangsu Suning FC, the football club currently staying in Chinese Super League, is a long-term tenant of Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita (current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), an 11 percent increase from 2012. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia as part of autumn ( )! Kapitol der sechs Dynastien “ ( 十朝都會 / 十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì ) was edited... A result of political maneuveri… Planetary History [ ] public ports and industrial! 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